chlorophyll (Ferric Chloride)
Iron chloride (III), also called ferric or chlorophyll chloride, is an industrial-scale chemical compound with the formula FeCl 3 and with the iron element in the oxidation state +3. Iron chloride (III) is formed from the direct combination of chlorine gas with iron under suitable heat conditions or from the combination of hydrochloric acid with iron and the oxidation of iron chloride (II), prepared with chlorine gas or from the combination of iron with iron chloride (III) and oxidation, regained by chlorine gas. Iron chloride (III) is very rare in its natural form, its mineral and natural form is called “Molysite.” The color depends on the viewing angle and the reflected light, although its usual appearance is in dark brown. Its molar mass is 162.204 g/mol. and its Boiling point is 106 °C.
Other names: Iron(III) chloride, Ferric chloride, Molysite, chlorophyll chloride
it is classified into the following types:
Dry powder (without water crystallization)
Iron chloride (III) chloride powder in the form of FeCl 3 molecular formula, absorbs moisture and glows orange when it absorbs moisture. This type of iron chloride may be seen in the form of lumps due to the absorption of moisture.
6-water crystal ( FeCl 3 .6H 2 O )
Iron chloride (III) solution in high concentrations with six water molecules turns yellow or orange and contains 60% by mass of iron chloride (III).
Liquid iron ( III ) chloride (solution)
Liquid iron (III) chloride liquid or soluble iron (III) chloride is available in a brownish-brown color, without suspended solids and impurities, and is available in plastic containers or in bulk. The concentration of iron chloride (III) in the solution is usually between 37 and 43% of the FeCl 3 mass.
Ferric Chloride production:
Industrial chlorophyll is formed by the reaction of dry chlorine with iron at a temperature of 700-500 °C. This process is known as direct Chloring.
It is processed in a reactor with an acid-resistant liner, this process is carried out in such a way that the scrap iron and the dry chlorine gas react with each other, and during the melting process the iron (III) scrap chloride first dissolves at 600 °C. It becomes oxide and is converted to iron (II) chloride. Chloride (II) chloride is then reacted with chloride to produce iron chloride (III) chloride, which is cooled in cooling chambers.
In fact, chlorophyll is obtained from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with chlorine gas with iron. The commercial process generally involves the reaction of chlorine gas on red iron. It is available in three forms: powder, crystal and liquid.
Most of the iron chloride used today is recycled from residual steel. During a process called steel leakage, hydrochloric acid (HCl) is used to remove rust from the steel surface. Removing the bell prepares the surface for protective coating.
One of the ways to prepare this product is to convert gas ferrite chloride into pure crystal of ferric chloride.
Applications for chlorophyll include:
Ferric chloride is being used in the lab as Lewis acid and as a catalyst in reactions such as Friedel-Kraft aromatics and chlorination of aromatic compounds.
Ferric chloride is the raw material in the production of pigments, dyes and cosmetics. It is also the raw material for the production of drugs for the treatment of anemia.
Ferric chloride is used for industrial and sanitary wastewater treatment, ink wastewater treatment, food, metals and oil materials, disassembly of keel, dehydration of sludge.
Ferric chloride, due to its high efficiency in water transparency and dehydration of sludge, is used in water and wastewater treatment operations. It is also used as a coagulant or flocculent for odor control, phosphate removal and softening of effluent sludge; As well as filtration aid, water color removal and removal of arsenic; It is also employed for detoxification of chromate and to soften industrial effluent and minimize hydrogen sulfide. It is also applied in water treatment to remove suspended solids and soften water behind the filter. The addition of chlorophyll chloride as a flocculent to a tank containing turbid and brown water leads to the accumulation of small particles and the settling of large particles and the formation of sediment at the bottom of the tank.
The use of ferric chloride has been used in the water treatment industry in the United States since the 1930s, and has been used in drinking water treatment for the past 15 years to remove turbidity and water color and remove organic and arsenic from water. The reaction of ferric chloride in water leads to the formation of hydrogen sulfide, phosphate, arsenate and hydroxide deposits. One of the advantages of ferric chloride as a flocculent is the possibility of sediment formation in a wide pH range. Some other advantages of chlorophyll chloride include:
It is effective in removing low or high degree turbidity
Compared to sulfate-based coagulants, less is needed
It is cheaper.
Flakes (larger particles consisting of fine-floc suspended particles) form heavier ones, leading to faster settling.
It produces sludge with higher concentration and density. The amount of iron in sludge is not high enough to be harmful for the environment.