Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless and highly odorous solution of hydrogen chloride (H Cl) in water. It is a very corrosive mineral and a strong acid with many industrial uses. This acid is widely used because it is one of the basic chemicals. The colorless Hydrochloric acid gas is colorless with an acidic taste and heavier than air. It easily converts into liquid, and in humid or soluble state, converts blue substances into red.
Chemical formula: HCl
Concentrated grade: 37% Hydrochloric acid, 30% to 33% Hydrochloric acid solution.
IUPAC name: Chlorane
Other Names: Hydrogen Chloride, Chlorhydric Acid, Chloric Acid
The grades of Hydrochloric acid:
Industrial Hydrochloric acid
Laboratory Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid history:
Hydrochloric acid has long been known as Salis acid, muriatic acid, and salt inks, derived from vitriol (sulfuric acid) and salt. Free Hydrochloric acid was first formally introduced by Andreas Libavios in the sixteenth century. Later, they were used by chemists such as Johann Rudolph Glaber, Joseph Priestley, and Humphrey Davy in their scientific researches.
With the start of the widespread production during the industrial revolution, Hydrochloric acid was used in the chemical industry as a potent Catalyst in large-scale production of vinyl chloride for PVC and MDI / TDI for polyurethane. It also has many smaller-scale applications, including housekeeping products, gelatin making and other food additives, descaling and leather making. About 2 million tons of Hydrochloric acid are produced annually, worldwide.
It is also said that Jaber ibn Hayan has discovered this acid. It is used for descaling different surfaces. Hydrochloric acid is also present in the stomach and helps with digestion. Breathing Hydrochloric acid is dangerous and damages the respiratory system, and if a drop falls on skin, it causes blisters and even deep injuries, in which case it should be neutralized immediately with a dilute alkaline solution such as soda ash or baking soda.
Method of Hydrochloric acid production:
Hydrochloric acid is produced by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. Hydrogen chloride can be produced in many ways, which means there are many ways to make hydrochloric acid. Large-scale production of hydrochloric acid is almost always done with industrial-scale production of other chemicals.
Hydrochloric acid is produced in solutions of up to 38% HCl (concentrated grade). Higher concentrations of up to just over 40% are chemically possible, but the evaporation rate is then so high that storage and handling of it require additional precautions, such as pressurization and cooling. Industrial-grade bulk is therefore 30% to 35%, optimized to balance transport efficiency and product loss through evaporation. In the United States, solutions of between 20% and 32% are sold as Muriatic acid. Solutions for household purposes in the US, mostly cleaning, are typically 10% to 12%, with strong recommendations to dilute before use. In the United Kingdom, where it is sold as "Spirits of Salt" for domestic cleaning, the potency is the same as the US industrial grade.
Uses of Hydrochloric acid
Production of chemicals
In many food production processes
Acidic wash of metals and steel
Production of sodium chloride:
One of the most important uses of Hydrochloric acid in acid-washing of steel is to remove rust or iron oxide from iron or steel prior to their entry into subsequent reactions such as extrusion, galvanizing and other techniques. Technical quality of HCl at typically 18% concentration is the most commonly used carbon steel grades’ washing agent.
Production of inorganic compounds: Many products are produced by Hydrochloric acid during a natural acid-based chemical reaction, resulting in inorganic compounds as well as water-based chemicals.
leather manufacturing process
In production of cleaning, industrial and housekeeping products
Neutralize alkaline compounds or scrap metals.
Ceramic tile cleaners and trimming.
Acidification of oil wells
Production of Organic Compounds: Another important use of hydrochloric acid is the production of organic compounds, such as vinyl chloride. This is usually a non-free use.
Boiler sediment removal
PH control and neutralization: Hydrochloric acid is used to regulate acidity in the purity required for the pharmaceutical food industry.
Preparation of ethylene dichloride
Loading and shipping conditions
Chloric acid is highly corrosive and releases (flammable) in contact with some hydrogen metals. Hydrochloric acid is usually carried in steel tankers with anti-acid coating or special types of plastic. ebonite
Steel tankers: Vinyl ester, epoxy or ibonite are suitable for inner tanker coating.
Plastic: Plastic tankers are only used if the manufacturer's specifications are fully complied with.
Skin protection: Chemical resistant gloves, clothes and shoes
Eye protection: Using a face protector is crucial
Body protection: Chemical resistant gloves, clothes and shoes. Shower and saline eye safety is a must in work environments with this substance.
Respiratory protection: Use appropriate mask.
Risk of fire: In contact with metals, it produces hydrogen gas, which can cause the risk of fire.