Chemical name: Sodium carbonate.
Formula: Na 2 CO 3
Other Names: Sodium Carbonate, Soda Ash, Carbonic Acid, Sodium Salt, , Disodium Carbonate, Soda, Soda monohydrate, Anhydrate, Monohydrate, Pentahydrate.
Grade: Light Sodium Carbonate (Industrial), heavy sodium carbonate (Laboratorial)
Kinds: Light Sodium Carbonate, Heavy Sodium Carbonate
Molar Mass: 105.9888 g/mol
Appearance: Solid crystalline powder.
Odor: No odor.
Melting temperature: 851 degrees Celsius.
Welding temperature: decomposes.
PH : 11.6.
Solubility in water: Soluble in water.
Solubility in alcohol: Insoluble.
Soda ash is the common name for water-free Sodium carbonate, used widely in chemical industry. Sodium carbonate or its soda is actually sodium carbonic acid, which is normally white solid. Sodium carbonate is produced on an industrial scale through the Solvay process using limestone (calcium carbonate), ammonia and salt (sodium chloride). One of its most important applications is the use of this material in the glass industry. Sodium carbonate, also known as bicarbonate carbonate, soda ash, soda crystals and washing soda, is one of the most widely used industrial chemicals. Used in the manufacture of other alkali products, sodium salts, etc.
the production of sodium carbonate:
Sodium carbonate was obtained from the extraction of ash and water, and was collected by evaporation of existing water. Hydrochloric acid from the Leblanc process is one of the main sources of air pollution, and calcium sulfide, which is considered a byproduct, is a useless product. However, with these descriptions, the main method of producing sodium carbonate until the end of the 1880 decade was the same.
In year 1861, one of the Belgian chemists in industry, Ernest Solvay, introduced a method of converting sodium chloride to sodium carbonate using ammonia. This process takes place in a large mid-empty tower which at the bottom of it, calcium carbonate (limestone) is heated to obtain carbon dioxide; And from the top of the tower, a thick solution of sodium chloride and ammonia enters it. As the carbon dioxide boils through it, sodium bicarbonate precipitates;
Sodium bicarbonate then heats up in the form of sodium carbonate and forms water and carbon dioxide among many other products. By the way, ammonia is re-produced from ammonium chloride as a by -product when it is exposed to the residual lime (calcium hydroxide is acting as an electrolyte).
Light and heavy sodium carbonate differences:
The difference between heavy and light sodium carbonate is only in their large volume density, particle size, and application. However, heavy sodium carbonate is coarser than light carbonate. Otherwise, there is no difference on their chemical composition.
Heavy sodium carbonate has a bulk density of about 1000 kg / m 3 and particles of 300 to 500 microns. Heavy sodium carbonate is often used in glass mills since larger granular particles such as these, cause the absence of soil dust and reduce the chance of particles spreading during transportation.
The density of light sodium carbonate is about 500 kg / m3 and the size of light sodium carbonate is about 100 microns. This grade of sodium carbonate is used to produce chemicals and detergents.
Sodium carbonate application:
Sodium carbonate is a material that has various applications in various industries. The following is a brief description of the most important uses of sodium carbonate.
- Manufacturing Glass: Sodium carbonate is used in the glass industry. Using this material in glass making reduces the glass formation temperature and saves energy.
- Chemical production: Sodium carbonate is used in the production of various chemicals such as sodium bicarbonate, sodium silicate, sodium triple phosphate, sodium dichromate, sodium aluminate, sodium cyanide and others. . ..
- Paper production: Sodium carbonate is used as an acidity regulator paper industries and also for the dye removal of recycled paper.
- Soap and Detergent Production: Ash soda is used as an alkaline agent in the production of soaps and detergents.
- Water softening: Sodium carbonate removes calcium and magnesium ions from the water, in the ion exchange process and reduces its hardness.
- Urban Water Tanks: Soda ash is used as a common additive in urban water tanks to counteract the acidic effect of chlorine and increase ph.
- Home Use: Sodium carbonate is used in homes as a water softener for washing clothes. It counteracts magnesium and calcium ions in hard water and prevents bonding between them and the detergent. Because of using sodium carbonate, no additional detergent is needed to soak up magnesium and calcium ions.
- Dyeing: Used as a bonding agent between dyes and fibers.
- Food industry: Used as pH regulator and preservative.
- Electrolysis: As an electrolyte, it increases the rate of water degradation.
- Taxidermy: Used in the process of removing meat from the bones.
- Chemistry Laboratories: Used as the primary standard in titration reactions.
- Toothpaste: Used as a pH-enhancing foaming agent.
- Brick: As a moisturizing agent in pulp production, it reduces the amount of water consumed.
- Textile Industry: Used as an anti-acid agent in silk processing.
- Petrochemical and Crude Oil Purification: Used as a neutralizer in petrochemical processes.
- Purification of vegetable oils: acts as a segregate to free fatty acids.
- Sulfur Removal from Smoke: It’s used in the process of removing sulfur from the smoke from the exhaust vents.
About the glass industry: About 45% of world production of sodium carbonate is used in the glass industry. Using this material in glass making reduces the glass formation temperature from 1700 to 1450-1500 ° C which in turn saves energy and reduces the life of the refractory.
Sodium carbonate accounts for less than 20% of the volume of all lime glass but costs 60% of the cost, such as flat glass, window glass and glass containers.
Other types of glass can use less sodium carbonate because they require less amount of sodium. Such as borosilicate glass, pyrex, fiberglass, flat glass containers, laboratory supplies, TV glass, monitors and more.
Soda ash is an alkaline substance that can damage organs if exposed to eyes, skin, inhalation or ingestion.
In case of contact with eyes, rinse with plenty of water and see your doctor. Avoid scrubbing your eyes. If you come in contact with the skin, remove the clothes and rinse with plenty of water. Use soap to wash. See your doctor if you need it.
If inhaled, transfer the patient to open air and use a respirator if necessary.
If swallowed, give the patient one to two glasses of water if the patient is alert. The injured person in anesthesia should not be given anything to eat by mouth. Avoid forcing the patient to vomit and take him or her to a medical center immediately.
After clean-up of any spillage of this substance, Waste and contaminated wastewater should be controlled.
For storage, it should be kept in dry places, with ventilation. Avoid damaging the product containers and avoid contact with water and moisture.
Store this substance away from acid containers.