Chemical name: Aluminum sulfate
Synonyms with aluminum sulfate: white alum, aluminum sulfate, cake alum, filter alum, Papermaker's alum
Another name: white alum
Product Grades: 1. Industrial aluminum sulfate 2. Laboratory aluminum sulfate
Chemical formula: Al2(SO4)3 ، Al2O12S3
Appearance: This product is in the form of granules, crystals or powders that are acidic in water solutions with PH.
Solubility in water: It is highly soluble in water.
Aluminum sulfate is a water-soluble Aluminum salt which is the second most widely used aluminum compound after aluminum oxide. It has a molar mass of 342.15 g / mol.
Aluminum sulfate production
Aluminum sulfate is usually produced by a series of acidic and thermal reactions. The aluminum sulphate production method was established by the mid-60s through the use of bauxite or alumina soil but after that date, aluminum sulphate production industries were using aluminum trihydrate material obtained from bauxite treatment as a material. To this end, dissolve the bauxite in a concentrated caustic soda solution to form sodium aluminate. Then by neutralizing it through the Bayer chemical process, aluminum trihydrate is precipitated in the tanks. Another raw material is sulfuric acid, which is transported by special tankers to and from.
Another raw material is sulfuric acid, which is transported by special tankers and dumped into the tanks. Then a reaction is formed between water, sulfuric acid and aluminum trihydrate at high temperature and water evaporates from the mixture. Aluminum sulfate is produced by the following exometric reaction:
2Al(OH)3 + 3H2SO4 + 8H2O → Al2(SO4)3 .14H2O ΔfH = -156 kJ mol-1
In the last step, after the reaction, aluminum sulfate is obtained as a liquid or solid alum. If it is liquid, it is pumped into the dilution tanks with water. Liquid aluminum sulfate is then filtered and pumped to storage tanks by extraction equipment. But if the aluminum sulfate is solid, it is transferred to specific trays and cooled by fans. Next, the trays are transferred to the shelves of the tanks and from there to the mortar section and dumped into the hopper. Aluminum sulfate particles are first crushed by large cobblers and then by small cobblers and then screened. Large particles that do not pass through the screen, go back to the crushing stage and the aluminum sulfate powder, passing through the screen, goes to the packaging section and is marked as the main product.
Aluminum sulfate types:
1: Aluminum sulfate granules:
2: Aluminum sulfate powders:
3: Aluminum sulfate crystals:
Aluminum sulfate Applications:
Use of aluminum sulfate in water and wastewater treatment
The biggest industrial use of aluminum sulfate is in the water treatment process. Aluminum sulfate is widely used in this sector since drinking water and wastewater treatment is an integral part of modern infrastructure. In the water treatment process, aluminum sulfate causes the particles to coagulate and coalesce into larger particles. These large particles settle down easily at the bottom of the treatment pond or are separated from the water by the filtration process. This process is called clotting or coagulation. Research shows that aluminum sulfate, which is used for drinking water treatment, is a major source of hydrogen sulfide gas in sewage systems. Using aluminum-based coagulants may lead to a slight increase in the level of aluminum in the treated water, but given the level of coagulants used, this level does not cause any harm to consumers' health. However, improper use of aluminum sulfate may cause water pollution. In some cases, the aluminum sulfate flocculants is also used to coagulate particles and thus to make the pool water transparent.
Use of aluminum sulfate in dyeing industry
When aluminum sulfate is largely dissolved in neutral or slightly alkaline water, the gel like substance like aluminum hydroxide precipitates at the bottom of the container. In dyeing and printing on clothing, gelatin deposition helps to stabilize the color on clothing fibers by non-solubilizing pigments. Aluminum sulfate is used as a stabilizer in the dyeing process. Stabilizer is a material that helps print and print on paper and fabric. Aluminum sulfate When mixed with water, it forms a gel-like aluminum hydroxide that helps dyeing by facilitating dye absorption by the fibers. Ammonium sulfate also stabilizes the color of fabrics by dissolving the dyes in water. Aluminum sulfate has been used since 2000 BC.
Use of aluminum sulfate in agriculture
In some cases, aluminum sulfate is used to lower the pH of orchards and farmland. This is due to the hydrolysis of aluminum sulfate and the formation of precipitated aluminum hydroxide and dilute sulfuric acid solution. Some Idrisia or Hortansia flower growers use the acidic nature of aluminum sulfate to change the color of the flower, as the flower color of this plant is strongly affected by soil pH.
Aluminum sulfate in cosmetic health industry
Aluminum sulfate is also known as aluminum alum. Alums are double sulfated salts with the general formula AM (SO 4) 2 .12HO 2. Formula A represents a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium and M represents a trivalent metal ion such as aluminum. Aluminum potassium sulfate and another form of alum, aluminum ammonium sulfate, are among the most commonly used antiperspirants. Due to the antibacterial properties of aluminum sulfate, this material is used in the manufacture of some anti-perspiration materials. Alum sulfate is also used in many countries for the treatment of overdose. Aluminum sulfate is used as a contraction agent in blood-blocking pens to prevent bleeding of small incisions.
Aluminum sulfate applications in other industries include:
Aluminum sulfate is used in the construction industry as a waterproofing agent for concrete. Another use of aluminum sulfate is as a foaming agent in firefighting foam. Aluminum potassium sulfate is commonly used in yeast powders. Aluminum sulfate is also used to control algae growth in ponds, lakes, and waterways. Aluminum sulfate is also used in the production of leather, agricultural fertilizers, soap, pharmaceuticals, and chemical catalysts.
Hazards of working with aluminum sulfate
If aluminum sulfate is ingested or inhaled: it is dangerous to inhale aluminum cough and shortness of breath. If aluminum sulfate is inhaled, leave the contaminated area immediately and breathe in fresh air.
Aluminum sulfate can cause eye, skin or skin irritation, itching, redness and pain. If aluminum sulfate comes in contact with skin or eyes, wash the contact area with water for 15 minutes. If aluminum sulfate comes into contact with the skin, remove contaminated clothing and rinse the skin with water.
Eating or swallowing aluminum sulfate can cause severe irritation to the stomach and intestines. A person who consumes aluminum sulfate may develop diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. If you eat or swallow aluminum sulfate, drink a glass of milk and then vomit.
Aluminum sulfate has a low corrosion due to its low pH as well as a low acid present in the product. Therefore, it is recommended that pipes, joints and all the containers adjacent to aluminum sulfate solution be made of plastic, fiberglass, steel. Stainless steel or other resistant materials.
Aluminum sulfate should be stored in a cool, dry place in a double-walled container and not mixed with other materials. Because all crystals lose their crystalline state when pressurized at high temperatures and the leachate exits and the crystals stick together. They must be stored dry and not pressurized, otherwise the powders will cling to each other and form clumps.
Aluminum sulfate waste should be mixed with neutralizing agents and should be crushed as with other acidic substances.