Chemical formula: CaCl2.
Other names: calcium chloride, calcium dichloride, E509.
Appearance: Calcium chloride is a white crystalline substance. Although it also comes in a solution format too. Its appearance is in the form of seeds, clods or fluffs.
It is composed of calcium and chlorine and is often associated with two water molecules. This compound absorbs a lot of moisture and is known as a moisturizer. This material must be kept in its packaging away from air and moisture.It comes in 2 grades of industrial and laboratorial. This salt is soluble in water, so it is used as a suitable source of calcium in substitution reactions. It easily replaces other cations. The heat released during dissolution in water, is due to the high enthalpy of the solute.
The source of calcium is vast and abundant in each of the lands. This element plays a vital role in plant and animal life and is present in bones and teeth, eggshells, corals and many soils. There is also 15% calcium chloride in seawater. It is also worth noting that lime is a well-known material that has long been used as a mortar in buildings in ancient Greece. Calcium in the composition of the earth's crust is 36,300 grams per ton. This element is not found freely. Instead, it participates in the formation of animals and plants in the form of various compounds in minerals and as a solution. Important minerals are dolomite, gypsum and apatite.
Calcium Chloride production:
Calcium Chloride is obtained by any of these methods.
1: By Hydrochloric Acid and limestone.
2: By natural saltwater
3: By Salvay process
Choosing which of these methods would be employed for its production mostly depends on the easy access to raw material or the ease in transportation.
The first method:
The reaction between limestone and hydrochloric acid results in the buildup of carbon dioxide and calcium chloride.
During this method, if 36% acid is used, this product can be produced with a concentration of 40%.
The limestone is usually used to produce CaCl 2 in cities such as Helsingborg Sweden, Cocola Finland and Frankfurt, Germany.
Due to the access of these cities to the limestone in the Gotland of the Baltic Sea and hydrochloric acid plants, this method is the best option for the production of calcium chloride in these cities.
If hydrochloric acid and limestone have good purity, this method can be used to produce Calcium chloride with high purity, which can also be used in food grade.
This method is one of the most environmentally friendly methods and does not harm it.
The second method:
This method, which is mostly used in the United States, concentrates and purifies salt water or salt deposits in lakes. Existing sediments may contain some magnesium. They also use the chemical Ca (OH) 2 to purify them. And magnesium is deposited as “Mg (OH) 2”.
Existing impurities “NaCl” are also removed by settling.
During the evaporation process, NaCl salt is precipitated to increase the concentration of the desired product and pure calcium dichloride is obtained.
The advantages of this method are cheap raw materials and low environmental hazards.
However, the purity of the product obtained during this method is less than the previous method.
The third method:
It is also produced as a by-product of the salvay process.
Application of calcium chloride:
Its uses include industrial and dietary uses.
1- Industrial uses: Calcium chloride is used in the construction of precast concrete.It plays an accelerating role in the construction of these concretes. Calcium chloride is first mixed with concrete water and then added to a mixture of sand and cement. In this way, ordinary cement with calcium chloride can be used to make precast concrete.
Concrete made in this way is more resistant to erosion, but is more vulnerable to sulfate attack, and the concrete fall increases about 10 to 15 percent, but the worst damage of this material is its effect on reinforced steel and corrosion in them. Thus, the use of calcium chloride is only allowed in non-steel concretes. Its usage is also limited to 2% of the cement’s total weight.
It is used for melting snow and ice on roads and roads in winter, controlling dust on dirt roads and stabilizing soil in desert areas, chemical industries, oil and gas industries and concrete accelerators for winter.
2. Oral Consumption: Consumption of calcium chloride as an additive is estimated at an average of 160-354 mg per day for individuals. This product is used as a hardening agent in canned vegetables, including dill, soy, beans or juice. It is also used as an electrolyte in sports drinks and..... Calcium chloride adds to the acidity of the food's flavor, while sodium is not added to the food.
Calcium chloride with the highest degree of purity is used as a food additive and for food processing. Processed salt is used to spray fruits, and liquid calcium chloride has become a key element in the food industry.
Other dietary uses:
1- Calcium chloride adds salty taste to food without increasing sodium.
2- Spraying with calcium chloride increases the useful life and strength of fruits and vegetables.
3- It improves the quality and nutritional value of fruits and vegetables when they are frozen.
4- Calcium chloride is used as a refrigerant in ice cream and making frozen desserts.
5. Calcium chloride is used to soften meat.
6-. In the preparation of livestock and poultry feed.
7- In the pharmaceutical industry.
8- In making food.
1-Used in cooling industries as well as humidifiers.
2-Used to prepare pigments.
3-Used to make glycerol.
4-In drilling oil and petrochemical wells.
Store in tightly closed containers in a cool, dry place.
Improper use of calcium chloride can cause serious risks when used. Calcium chloride, if ingested, can cause burns to the mouth and throat. It can also cause symptoms such as excessive thirst, vomiting, stomach pain, hypotension or other health risks. Also, if it is in constant contact with the skin of the hand, it can cause excessive dryness, flaking and cracking of the skin. However, in cases of severe exposure to this compound or the misuse of this chemical, it can lead to skin burns, heart disorders, as well as respiratory problems and even seizures. Therefore, it is very important to observe safety precautions when using this substance.